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February 6 - March 29

Classic Ford: A John Ford Retrospective, Part I

The towering figure of John Ford (1894-1973) casts a long and irrefutable shadow across the history of the American cinema. Yet the breadth and measure of Ford’s major contributions to the Golden Age of Hollywood cinema, and to film language in general, remains somewhat difficult to discern – obscured both by the sheer magnitude of his incredibly prolific sixty year career and by the persistent image of Ford, fixed late in his career, as an anachronous and often cantankerous artist clinging stubbornly to the Western genre. Rarely recognized in full are Ford’s great achievements as a consummate visual stylist and master storyteller. Crafted in close collaboration with many of the greatest cinematographers of the studio era - William Clothier, Bert Glennon and Gregg Toland among them - and channeling European and especially American painterly traditions, Ford’s cinema is aesthetically sophisticated and varied. Beginning with the moody Expressionism of his late silent and thirties films, Ford’s oeuvre underwent a series of rich stylistic transformations, giving way to the expressive realism of his forties work that, in turn, gradually shifted to the stark classicism of his late films in the 1950s and 1960s. Echoing the notable stylistic diversity of Ford’s cinema is the equally impressive range of genres in which he successfully worked, over and beyond the Westerns for which he is still best known. Between the extraordinarily prolific years of 1926 to 1945, it must be noted, Ford actually directed only one Western, Stagecoach (1939). Ford’s career is, in fact, distinguished by his singular, often quite idiosyncratic, approaches to popular genres - the brisk adventure narratives of The Prisoner of Shark Island (1936) and Drums Along the Mohawk (1939), the leisurely paced small-town comedies Steamboat Round the Bend (1933) and The Sun Shines Bright (1953), the erotically charged safari-romance Mogambo (1953), the deeply melancholy films of war, like The Long Voyage Home (1940) and Rio Grande (1950) - more concerned with the ritualized quotidian spaces between the battles than the fighting itself. Ford’s interpretative approach to genre filmmaking informs his eventual return to his earliest roots as a director of Westerns and the series of ruminative and increasingly mournful Westerns that began with My Darling Clementine (1946) and led to his dark masterpiece, The Searchers (1956).

Ford’s incredibly unflagging talents and rare ability to harness the complex studio apparatus to make genuine works of art eventually drew the attention of critics, historians and critics-turned-filmmakers Lindsay Anderson and Peter Bogdanovich. Ford was, in fact, among the very first Hollywood directors to be recognized as an auteur whose films shared a vivid personal signature and concern for certain dominant themes. One of the most important overriding themes of Ford’s cinema is American history and, more specifically, the shaping forces and strong-willed individuals who have defined the U.S. as a nation and an idea. Ford’s lifelong fascination with such legendary figures from American history as Wyatt Earp and Abraham Lincoln drew his films frequently back into the distant past to explore the myths and legends firmly rooted in both the popular imagination and official history. Intermingled with Ford’s concern for the myths of history - or perhaps, one could say, the history of myths - is his deep and abiding love of the West as the cradle of American civilization and as a potent quintessence of the American psyche. Ford’s cinema offers one of the most important and sustained mediations on the West in American popular culture. In such works as My Darling Clementine, Wagon Master, Fort Apache and The Searchers, the distinct landscapes and culture of the late 19th century West - including the Native Americans who figure increasingly prominently in Ford’s late work - are given such vivid shape that they remain among the most influential and lasting representations of this absolutely formative period in our nation’s history.

This multi-part retrospective begins with an expanded selection of Ford’s most enduring works, including a number of lesser known major films - Mogambo, Prisoner of Shark Island, Wagon Master – and featuring visits from distinguished experts on Ford’s cinema Tom Doherty and Tom Conley.

This John Ford retrospective was made possible by a generous grant from the Sun Hill Foundation. Special thanks: Jennifer Combs, Sun Hill Foundation.


Double Feature - Followed by Directed by John Ford
Saturday February 6 at 7pm

The Searchers

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Jeffrey Hunter, Vera Miles
US 1956, 35mm, color, 119 min.
Print from Warner Bros.

This classic tale of one man’s obsessive quest to find a young girl taken by the Comanche is a surprising mixture of new and old, intimate and epic. Considered Ford’s greatest film, its unsettling ambiguity results in a more modern feel than many of Ford’s 1930s and 1940s classics, which were characterized largely by their sincerity and their central focus on family and community. The Searchers, in contrast, derives its startling force from its exploration of loneliness and racism as family and community’s darkest counterparts. Ford often evokes the deep human necessity for community and its attendant pleasures, while just as often viewing the world from the perspective of an outsider never able to join. The greatness of The Searchers is its ability to do both.

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Live Piano Accompaniment by Rob Humphreville
Special Event Tickets $12

Sunday February 7 at 7pm

The Iron Horse

Directed by John Ford.
With George O’Brien, Madge Bellamy, Fred Kohler
US 1924, 35mm, b/w, silent, 120 min.
Print from Fox

The success of James Cruze’s epic Western The Covered Wagon (1923) inspired William Fox’s ambition to top it by sending John Ford to Nevada to film the story of the 1869 completion of the transcontinental railroad. The first of Ford’s American history films, The Iron Horse unfurls its historical tapestry as backdrop to a driving melodrama of a tense love triangle and a son avenging his father’s murder. The film’s gripping action sequences display Ford’s strong command of kinetic cinema with intensely rhythmic sequences of laying the railroad tracks and dramatic battles with “Indians.” While the Native Americans exist as near caricatures in the film, Ford is nevertheless careful to acknowledge the importance of immigrant labor in the completion of the railroad.

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Friday February 12 at 7pm

The Long Voyage Home

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Thomas Mitchell, Ian Hunter
US 1940, 35mm, b/w, 105 min.
Print from the Harvard Film Archive Collection

On the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II, Ford offered a stark and brooding maritime fable that counts among the most powerful evocations of male longing and loneliness in American cinema. Ford’s rare talent as an ensemble director reached a new height in this tale of an English freighter carrying dangerous secret cargo through a perilous war zone and in the unusually sensitive and heartrending performances of Ian Hunter, Ward Bond and especially Thomas Mitchell. The Long Voyage Home’s astonishing black and white cinematography marked an important high point in the career of legendary cinematographer Gregg Toland, whose experimentation with depth-of-focus and tonally expressive shadows anticipates his milestone work in Citizen Kane the next year. 

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Friday February 12 at 9pm
Sunday February 14 at 7pm

Mogambo

Directed by John Ford.
With Clark Gable, Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly
US 1953, 35mm, color, 116 min.
Print courtesy of the George Eastman House

The important role of women in Ford’s cinema is typically overlooked and misunderstood, in part because later major works such as Mogambo - and the criminally disregarded Seven Women - are rarely discussed or screened. An ambitious remake of Red Dust, the racy Pre-Code romance starring Clark Gable and Jean Harlow, Mogambo is a beautifully crafted tale of a safari adventure gone astray, overturned by the strange love triangle that briefly unites a chorus girl, an anthropologist’s wife and a hunter - an encore role that revived Gable’s late career - in the dark heart of the African jungle. In the case of the women, Ford’s sensitive direction resulted in two alluring revelations, with Ava Gardner displaying an unexpectedly earthy innocence as the city girl strangely at ease in the remote wilderness and a young Grace Kelly, in her first major screen role, unlocking a dark and beguiling eroticism. As in Hawks’ Hatari!, the safari stands in as a vibrant metaphor for the always simmering battle between the sexes.

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Saturday February 13 at 7pm

Fort Apache

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Henry Fonda, Shirley Temple
US 1948, 35mm, b/w, 127 min.
Print courtesy of the Library of Congress

The first and darkest entry in Ford’s “Cavalry Trilogy,” Fort Apache paints a stark and mesmerizing portrait of an isolated military outpost on the furthest edge of the Western frontier in the years just after the Civil War. Ford’s own extensive firsthand experience in WWII informs both the film’s detailed rendering of the customs and contradictions of everyday life in the lonely fort as well as its ultimately ambiguous attitude towards the hierarchical (il)logic of the military community. While Henry Fonda brilliantly embodies the callous, deadly arrogance of a Custer-like colonel fixed upon ruthless battle with the Indians, Pedro Armendáriz, John Wayne and a radiant teenage Shirley Temple together define a warm human counterpoint. Considered by many to be the first genuinely sympathetic and realistic portrayal of Native Americans in a major Hollywood feature, Fort Apache points towards the important revisionist tendencies in Ford’s later work. Preserved by the Library of Congress.

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Saturday February 13 at 9:30pm

Steamboat Round the Bend

Directed by John Ford.
With Will Rogers, Anne Shirley, Eugene Pallette
US 1935, 35mm, b/w, 80 min.
Print from Fox

A delightfully lighthearted yet insightful tour of the Deep South led by the comic Will Rogers – at the time one of the most popular actors in America – as an artful elixir peddler turned Mississippi river boatman. One of Ford’s few successful comedies, Steamboat Round the Bend is enlivened by Rogers’ inimitable homespun humor as well as by the film’s frequently outlandish plot twists - including a thrilling boat race - and strange, at times almost surrealist, imagery. Bolstered by a wonderful cast of character actors (although contemporary audiences cannot help but wince at Stepin Fetchit’s notoriously dimwitted manservant), including Anna Lee and Eugene Pallette, The Steamboat Round the Bend wonderfully captures Rogers’ cracker-barrel political innuendo and Ford’s affection for the American landscape and vernacular. The film would be Rogers’ last, finished just weeks before his tragically premature death in a plane crash.

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Please note: We regret that this screening has been postponed. We will screen Mogambo in its place. Check back soon for the rescheduled Rio Grande date.
Sunday February 14 at 7pm

Rio Grande

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Maureen O’Hara, Ben Johnson
US 1950, 35mm, b/w, 105 min.

The final entry in Ford’s “Cavalry Trilogy” is one of his few films to reveal darker tensions at work within a family unit, here the dysfunctional marriage of John Wayne’s battle weary Colonel Yorke and his estranged wife Maureen O’Hara - only a few years before their dynamic union in The Quiet Man. The simmering familial tensions - brought to boil by the arrival of the Colonel’s wayward son - are mirrored in the deep distrust and racist violence that pits the Cavalry against the Indians. One of the more important “Cold War Westerns,” Rio Grande provides a fascinating counterpoint to the more pluralistic vision of the West seen in the earlier Fort Apache. For Rio Grande’s dramatic locations, Ford returned once more to his favorite location, Monument Valley, while also exploring other striking landscapes in remotest Utah.

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Introduction by Tom Conley
Monday February 15 at 7pm

Young Mr. Lincoln

Directed by John Ford.
With Henry Fonda, Alice Brady, Marjorie Weaver
US 1939, 35mm, b/w, 100 min.
Print from the Harvard Film Archive Collection

Weaving together history and myth, Young Mr. Lincoln has intrigued commentators from Sergei Eisenstein to the Cahiers critics and Andrew Sarris. This biopic presents not the agonized Civil War President but the gangly, even awkward, backwoods lawyer in Illinois whose pursuit of justice hints at greatness to come. The film’s genius and appeal come from this simple device: everything we see and hear gains an extra dimension of poignancy and significance from our knowledge of Lincoln’s future. Many of Henry Fonda’s roles for Ford exemplify this pattern, in which the hero must always move on; driven by fate, he can never settle down, even if he would like to. Nevertheless, far from being a forbidding figure, Ford’s Lincoln is both a man for the ages and a man of the people. As Joseph McBride puts it, “For Ford, Lincoln is the archetypal figure of justice, a man who dispenses legal wisdom with a priestlike humor, charity and tolerance.”

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Sunday March 7 at 7pm

The Informer

Directed by John Ford.
With Victor McLaglen, Heather Angel, Preston Foster
US 1935, 35mm, b/w, 91 min.
Print courtesy of the UCLA Film and Television Archive

Ford’s rising star in the mid-1930s - due largely to the success of his films starring Will Rogers - allowed him to convince RKO that he should adapt Liam O’Flaherty’s novel of the moral and social cost of the 1922-23 Irish Civil War, allegorized by an impoverished Dubliner’s cruel betrayal of his best friend. RKO gave Ford a medium-sized budget and a relative freedom hitherto unknown to him. The studio’s initial dismay at the unconventional results was calmed when the critics began to universally praise the film for its serious subject matter and stylistic audacity. The apotheosis of Ford’s expressionist style, The Informer has become a controversial point among Ford scholars and fans - while some miss the relaxed lyricism of later Ford and find the Huit clos universe of the film overly mechanistic, many admire the film’s uncompromising look at a fallen world where only compromise and defeat are possible.

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Monday March 8 at 7pm

She Wore a Yellow Ribbon

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Joanne Dru, John Agar
US 1949, 35mm, color, 103 min.
Print courtesy of the UCLA Film and Television Archive

Films from every period of Ford’s career testify to his abiding fascination with the military as a way of life and as a model of community. Ford fused his engagement with the military to the Western genre in his trilogy of films about U.S. Cavalry units assigned to policing indigenous tribes. The middle film of the trilogy, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon is packed with plot (a clash with the Arapaho and a love triangle involving a young woman and two rival cavalrymen), but still places its emphasis on the structures of daily life at the cavalry post and the rites of social interaction. If Ford’s pre-war Westerns create the mythology of the West, his postwar Westerns present The West as myth. Now working in glorious Technicolor, the alternately expressionist and realist black and white of previous Westerns gives way to richer-than-life colors that evoke vivid reds and browns of the Frederic Remington’s paintings that Ford acknowledged as an important inspiration. Preservation funded by The Film Foundation.

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Introduction by Thomas Doherty
Friday March 12 at 7pm

My Darling Clementine

Directed by John Ford.
With Henry Fonda, Linda Darnell, Victor Mature
US 1946, 35mm, b/w, 97 min.
Print courtesy of the UCLA Film and Television Archive

Western narrative of the rule of law inexorably taming the frontier against the violence of the primal horde. The brawling brood of brothers presided over by their rabid patriarch - played with vicious authenticity by Walter Brennan - is contrasted with the virile but peaceable Earps, lead by brother Wyatt, as they bring order to Tombstone. Somewhere between these two camps is the melancholy Doc Holliday, a Romantic figure who soulfully quotes Shakespeare and seems fated to an early death from tuberculosis. Fonda’s Wyatt Earp, by contrast, embodies a new modernity for the West, taciturn and efficient. Placing the greater good against individual satisfaction, he suborns his feelings to duty instead of wearing his heart on his sleeve. At the literal and figurative heart of the film is a classic Fordian sequence – a dance that brings the fledgling community together to raise funds to build a church. Preservation funded by The Film Foundation.

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Friday March 12 at 9pm

The Prisoner of Shark Island

Directed by John Ford.
With Warner Baxter, Gloria Stuart, Claude Gillingwater
US 1936, 35mm, b/w, 95 min.
Print courtesy of the Academy Film Archive

Ford’s prints the legend, rather than the fact, in his rousing film about Dr. Samuel Mudd, who was jailed for his purported role in the assassination of President Lincoln after tending John Wilkes Booth’s broken leg. Although Mudd and Booth knew each other prior to the murder, it is unclear to this day whether Mudd knew or was part of Booth’s plan. Ford offers his interpretation of the events by presenting Mudd as an innocent figure whose unjust imprisonment is met with saintly forbearance. Despite several moments of racial caricature, The Prisoner of Shark Island is both nightmarish and ultimately quite moving, redeemed by the film’s chronicling of the relationship between Mudd and one of his former slaves, whose devotion to each to the other is tested by hardship.

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Saturday March 13 at 7pm

Wagon Master

Directed by John Ford.
With Ben Johnson, Harry Carey, Jr., Joanne Dru
US 1950, 35mm, b/w, 86 min.

One of Ford’s unsung masterpieces, Wagon Master at first seems a
variation of Stagecoach, with another motley assortment of character types embarking on a perilous journey through the Wild West. Wagon Master takes on a Fellinian picaresque quality in the almost musical combination, separation and recombination of the various groups formed when two young cowboys cross paths with a Mormon wagon train, a traveling theater troupe and a gang of outlaws. Wagon Master exhibits that lyrical sense of the everyday so often encountered in postwar filmmaking and usually labeled “neorealist” not only in its episodic narrative but also in the relaxed framing of its images. One of Ford’s favorites, Wagon Master can be seen as the beginnings of the revisionist Western in its espousal of the idea that the West was always multicultural and a haven for outcasts, individualists and the oppressed. Preserved by the Library of Congress.

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Saturday March 13 at 9pm

The Fugitive

Directed by John Ford.
With Henry Fonda, Dolores Del Rio, Pedro Armendariz
US 1947, 35mm, b/w, 104 min.

Among Ford’s least known yet deeply memorable major works is his beautifully stylized adaptation of Graham Greene’s celebrated 1940 novel The Power and the Glory - a gripping allegory about religious faith and the State which follows the final desperate days of the last priest in an unnamed Latin American country where religion has been declared illegal. Shot entirely in Mexico by the preeminent Mexican cinematographer Gabriel Figueroa, The Fugitive accents and adds nuance to its stark tale of guilt and difficult retribution by returning to the Expressionist lighting and shadows favored by Ford earlier in his career. Henry Fonda brings an unusual pathos and humanity to his portrayal of the whiskey priest struggling to understand the moral and spiritual turpitude of his country and religion.

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Sunday March 14 at 7pm

The Grapes of Wrath

Directed by John Ford.
With Henry Fonda, Jane Darwell, John Carradine
US 1940, 35mm, b/w, 129 min.
Print courtesy of the ConstellationCenter and the Academy Film Archive

Ford’s riveting adaptation of Steinbeck’s classic novel of “Okie” farmers made destitute by the Depression and the Dust Bowl is considered one of the very few politically radical works of studio-era Hollywood. Although Ford envisioned the film as a character study - a portrait of a struggling family - rather than an open attack on capitalism, his adaptation faithfully retains the book’s hard-eyed look at the exploitation of the rural poor. Like so much of his thirties work, The Grapes of Wrath reveals Ford’s then-ardent Leftist populism. The suffering of the Joad family as it marches slowly toward California is given iconic status by Ford’s monumental compositions, by the remarkable performances from a talented cast and by pioneering cinematographer Gregg Toland’s successful fusion of Ford’s expressionist aesthetic and photojournalist realism.

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Monday March 15 at 7pm

The Quiet Man

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Maureen O’Hara, Barry Fitzgerald
US 1952, 35mm, color, 129 min.
Print courtesy of the UCLA Film and Television Archive

One of the biggest commercial successes of his career, The Quiet Man remains among Ford’s – and John Wayne’s – most beloved works today. The tale of an American escaping from his country, and from a dark past, to make a new home in his ancestral Ireland was an intensely personal project for Ford, nurtured by the director since the late 1930s. Ford’s fascination with small town community and his own Irish heritage animates the film’s almost anthropological attention to the smallest details of domestic space, rural and religious customs and vernacular language. A wonderfully expressive color film, The Quiet Man uses its vivid Technicolor palette to lend a radiant, dreamlike quality to the lushly verdant Irish landscapes captured within it. The film’s predominantly nostalgic tone has led many to overlook its darker and subtly critical undertones - especially with regard to its depiction of the Church - and its innovative, unusual use of voiceover narration.

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Friday March 19 at 7pm

Stagecoach

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Claire Trevor, John Carradine
US 1939, 35mm, b/w, 97 min.
Print courtesy of the UCLA Film and Television Archive

Set at the frontier between civilization and wilderness, Stagecoach realizes the Platonic ideal of the classic Western, with a cast comprised of exemplary stock types—the heroic cowboy, the villainous outlaw, the fallen woman with a heart of gold, the brave but fragile wife—and a climax that hangs on a nick-of-time rescue by the cavalry. Stagecoach’s thrilling cinema is born from the alchemy that combines all these elements into a story that provides both variety and closure while assuring a seamless narrative drive. Most surprising are the striking visual touches – the iconic travelling shot that introduces John Wayne’s Ringo, and Ford’s expressionistic use of light.

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Friday March 19 at 9pm

3 Godfathers

Directed by John Ford.
With John Wayne, Pedro Armendariz, Harry Carey, Jr.
US 1949, 35mm, color, 106 min.

Ford’s offbeat Biblical allegory reimagines the three Magi as a trio of slightly befuddled bank robbers, “badmen” notably out of place in an increasingly civilized West. John Wayne, Pedro Armendáriz and newcomer Harry Carey, Jr. share a wonderfully naturalistic repartee as the not-so-wise men who unexpectedly become fathers to an infant son at the seemingly worst possible time. Despite its comic touches, 3 Godfathers is tinged with a mournful tone that anticipates a major theme of 1960s and 1970s revisionist Westerns - the inexorable death of the frontier. Filmed largely in Death Valley, 3 Godfathers renders the torturous heat-warped landscape of the unforgiving desert into scorching Technicolor.

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Saturday March 20 at 7pm

Drums Along the Mohawk

Directed by John Ford.
With Henry Fonda, Claudette Colbert, Edna May Oliver
US 1939, 35mm, color, 104 min.

A kind of pre-Western, Drums Along the Mohawk shifts the location of the frontier between civilization and wilderness from the Southwest to the Northeast—upstate New York during the Revolutionary War, to be precise. In gorgeous Technicolor, Ford presents the story of a young couple trying to make a home in New York’s Mohawk Valley in 1776. Lindsay Anderson notes that the years of 1939 and 1940 constitute Ford’s rediscovery of America, with Stagecoach, Young Mr. Lincoln, Drums Along the Mohawk and The Grapes of Wrath coming in the wake of a number of films set abroad, and especially a rediscovery of the American past. Others have pointed out that Drums should be understood in the context of the American present of 1939. Drums Along the Mohawk reveals a snapshot of American anxiety about the possibility of war on the eve of conflict in Europe. The British are not the primary villains; the Mohawk are. Despite Claudette Colbert being perhaps too glamorous to be a pioneer’s wife, the film abounds with moments that emphasize the important role such women had. (Andrew Sarris identifies Drums as the first panel in a matriarchal trilogy, followed by How Green Was My Valley and Seven Women.)

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Saturday March 20 at 9pm

The Sun Shines Bright

Directed by John Ford.
With Charles Winninger, Arleen Whelan, Stepin Fetchit
US 1953, 16mm, b/w, 90 min.

One of Ford’s personal favorites, this rarely screened late work offers a fascinating vision of Americana that captures the quaint - and often outright bizarre - charms and disturbing contradictions of small town Kentucky at the end of the 19th century. Returning once more to the figure of Judge Priest, famously played by Will Rogers in two Ford films of the 1930s, The Sun Shine Bright centers its complex cross-section of the town’s many splintered factions - white and African-American, male and female - around the figure of the level-headed and temperate lawman. Punctuated by the lyrical passage of the steamboat, the film interweaves multiple storylines into a polyphonic and choral portrait of a provincial community reluctantly harboring the seeds of inevitable change.

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Sunday March 21 at 7pm

How Green Was My Valley

Directed by John Ford.
With Walter Pidgeon, Maureen O’Hara, Donald Crisp
US 1941, 35mm, b/w, 118 min.
Print courtesy of the UCLA Film and Television Archive

It would be no exaggeration to call Ford’s multiple-Oscar winning saga of a struggling Welsh mining family one of the most emotionally resonant and genuinely moving films of the studio era. Like The Grapes of Wrath the year before, How Green Was My Valley is a triumph of expressive realism that gives emotional depth and dignity to those suffering social injustice, rendering vivid and authentic the difficult lives and plain pleasures of the coal miners and their families. In his first starring role, child actor Roddy MacDowell poignantly captures the awkward, fragile innocence of youth in his portrayal of a wide-eyed, precocious romantic pulled abruptly into adulthood. Originally assigned to William Wyler, Ford was – incredibly - only appointed at the very last minute to what would become one of his best-known works. Preservation funded by The Film Foundation.

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Monday March 29 at 7pm

Air Mail

Directed by John Ford.
With Ralph Bellamy, Gloria Stuart, Pat O’Brien
US 1932, 35mm, b/w, 84 min.

A rousing tale of the bonds and rituals within a community of risk-taking pilots, Air Mail anticipates Howard Hawks’ iconic films of daring fliers, Ceiling Zero and Only Angels Have Wings. Ford’s film, in contrast, is steeped in a sober atmosphere of menace and gloom, darker than the devil-may-care nobility embodied by Hawks’ pilot heroes. Air Mail’s dramatic heart lies in the feisty pilots’ oscillation between alpha-male competition amongst themselves and bonding in the face of the stark dangers of their job. Pre-Code immorality is radiantly emblazoned on the film - when, for example, the widow of one pilot immediately takes up with another. But Air Mail is perhaps most notable as the one time that Ford, so influenced and enamored by German expressionism and F.W. Murnau, worked with Karl Freund, the great expressionist cinematographer who shot several of Murnau’s masterpieces. Preserved by the Library of Congress.

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